In many cases of gingival recession, there is not enough soft tissue (gum), which can be used to cover the exposed part of the tooth root. In such cases it is necessary to graft tissue from elsewhere. There are two options for finding tissue.
The first option is taking own mucosa from a suitable place in the oral cavity of the patient, and placing it on the exposed root surface. Usually such place is the palate.
A piece of mucosa with size about 1.5 cm2 can be used. The advantages of this method are that the transplanted tissue is from the patient himself/herself, and there is no rejection reactions. The cost of the operation is also low due to the fact that own tissue is used and does not require the purchase of an artificial transplant. The disadvantage of this option is that a second operation is necessary for taking transplant that leads to longer working time, and also the healing period is longer. Moreover, the place, from which the transplant was taken (palate), remains an open wound which heals secondary, which causes discomfort to the patient for several days.
The second option is the use of natural biological matrix which has been prepared in a special way (shaping and drying), in order to reduce the likelihood of rejection.
Thus, the material used (dermal matrix) is directly placed and stitched on the respective exposed surfaces, and it serves as a scaffold on which new tissue is going to form (gum). The advantages of this method are that it does not require a second surgery, the healing period is shorter and tolerated more easily by the patient, and the length of the surgery is shorter. A disadvantage of the use of such a matrix is that it is more expensive due to the high cost of regenerative materials. A minor drawback is the small risk of rejection of the transplanted material.