This is a non-inflammatory condition where the gum withdraws and the tooth is exposed and visible.

It affects most commonly the teeth in the frontal area (incisors and canine). It may cover one or several teeth. The non-inflammatory recession occurs primarily in young people and it is an aesthetic problem at the beginning. Progression of the gingival recession leads to sensitivity of the neck of a tooth (pain in the tooth with cold), infection, bleeding, pain and discomfort when eating. The teeth at the initial stage of exposure of the root are generally not loose, but with the progress of the process they can become shaky. This is due to the fact that the gum and the bone below it are interconnected and stripping the root decreases the level of the bone. Upon melting of 2/3 of the height of the bone, the tooth becomes loose and the mobility in turn deteriorates the recession of the gum. The most common causes of gingival recession are:

• incorrect traumatic brushing (hard toothbrush and coarse horizontal movements)
• high muscle connections and frenulum (individual anatomy of the oral cavity)
• improper orthodontic treatment
• parafunction (bruxism) which is clenching or gnashing of teeth

To prevent the development of gingival recession it is important to carry out thorough check-ups from childhood. It is vital to treat early orthodontic abnormalities and short frenulum, and patients who have a predisposition should be monitored more frequently. Gingival recession could be not only a non-inflammatory disease but a symptom of some inflammatory disease – gingivitis and periodontitis.

The treatment of gingival recession is through microsurgical periodontal surgery.

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